2012年11月14日 星期三

Naum Gabo

Naum Gabo
南姆‧嘉寶 (Naum Gabo = Naum Neemia Pevsner)http://vizproto.prism.asu.edu/modeling/dynamic3D/gabo.html(Published in: Ronald Alley, Catalogue of the Tate Gallery%26#39;s Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.231)

出生在俄羅斯的布良斯克(Briansk)--位於莫斯科西南350公里的古城,an area now known as Belarus。本名南姆‧佩夫斯納(Naum Pevsner);He was the son of an executive in a copper refinery.雕塑家安東尼‧佩夫斯納(Antoine Pevsner, 1886-1962)的弟弟。1910年進德國慕尼黑大學就讀,先研習醫學,一年後改念工程和物理;也去上德國藝術史家沃爾夫林(Heinrich Wofflin)的藝術史課程. 1912年轉到慕尼黑的工程學校。Gabo met Wassily Kandinsky and was enthusiastic over the exhibitions of the Blaue Reiter group, to which Kandinsky belonged.1913-14到巴黎他哥哥安東尼‧
佩夫斯納who had a studio there and who introduced him to friends involved in the modern movement in art.。在第一次大戰爆發後與他的哥哥Alexei先搬到丹麥的哥本哈根(Copenhagen),再搬到奧斯陸(Oslo);在1915年以南姆‧嘉寶之名開始製作他的第一個「構成」(construction)。這些早期的構成是用紙板和木板型塑 桃園家具出Head No.2 in the Tate collection。These pieces were cubist. He used sheet metal and celluloid to build abstract likenesses of human beings; one example is his Head of a Woman
(1916), composed of opaque celluloid cut, bent, and attached to a flat plane to become a high relief extending from a flat surface.1917年回到俄羅斯,1917-22 Gabo contributed to the Agit-prop open air exhibitions and taught at %26#39;VKhUTEMAS%26#39; the Higher Art and Technical Workshop with Tatlin, Kandinsky and Rodchenko。They renewed their acquaintance with Kandinsky, who introduced them to Kasimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin, and other avant-garde artists. Gabo established a studio and accepted students. At first he and his brother supported the Revolution as a liberating force, not only for social good but for the welfare of art. There was a move, however, toward the use of art as propaganda to further the aims of the state. Certain artists, Tatlin among them, insisted that this was essential and supported the politicians.在這段期間他的雕和構成作品更趨幾何,也開始實驗動態雕塑,這些作品大半數都已遺失和摧毀。Gabo in 1920 produced Kinetic Composition, a construction that used a motor to rotate a steel blade; this piece is the earliest known example of kinetic sculpture. Gabo%26#39;s designs had become increasingly monumental but there wa 美容SPAs little opportunity to apply them commenting %26#39;It was the height of civil war, hunger and disorder in Russia. To find any part of machinery … was next to impossible%26#39;。在1920年莫斯科與佩夫斯納共同撰寫和發行現實主義宣言(Realistic Manifesto) ,宣明純綷構成主義的宗旨(這也是構成主義這個名詞第一次被使用)。
在宣言中Gabo criticised Cubism and Futurism as not becoming fully abstract arts and stated that the spiritual experience was the root of artistic production. Gabo and Pevsner promoted the manifesto by staging an exhibition on a bandstand on Tverskoy Boulevard in Moscow and posted the manifesto on hoardings around the city.The manifesto was a break with Tatlin%26#39;s and Rodchenko%26#39;s increasingly politicised Constructivism and Malevich%26#39;s Suprematism. With the introduction of the New Economic Policy
in 1921 support for the Constructivists ended. When Gabo and Pevsner where invited to install an exhibition in Berlin in 1922 they chose not to return to Moscow.1922-32住在柏林,與風格派的藝術家接觸,1928年在包浩斯教書。在這一時期他在Dresden設計了一處噴泉
(已毀壞)。These developments are evident in his Column (1923), a shimmering upright sculpture of intersecting glass pieces on a metal base.1924年在巴黎,與佩夫斯納在Galerie Percier發表第一次個人展。1926年與佩夫斯納,為Diaghilev%26#39;s ball 三效美白et La Chatte設計舞台和戲服。1932-5 巴黎,參加「抽象-具體(Abstraction-Creation)的會員。1935-46 英格蘭,之後從1939在 Carbis Bay in Cornwall。Gabo%26#39;s work and theories had a profound effect on Ben Nicholson and Barbara Hepworth whose work became entirely abstract and many other leading British artists adopted Gabo%26#39;s methods and use of new materials such as plastics.In 1936 Gabo%26#39;s work featured in the exhibition Cubism and Abstract Art at the Museum of Modern Art New York. In 1937 he edited the journal %26#39;Circle%26#39; (a periodical dedicated to promoting constructivist art.) jointly with Leslie Martin and Nicholson and contributed an illustrated essay that promoted Constructivism and the principles of Kinetic Art that had a lasting impact on a generation of British architects and designers. Gabo exhibited in group exhibitions at the London Gallery and played an important role in establishing pure abstraction in Britain as an artistic movement in opposition to Surrealism. During the later war years Gabo worked for the Design Research Unit
.Gabo%26#39;s sculptures at this time continued along the path established in Paris, but he exploited materials further. He was introduced to perspex(壓克力PMMA的商標名), a new plastic from Imperial Chemical Industries, and used this material in some of his bes 青春痘護理t-known works. He used transparent plastic tubing or plastic sheet made into warped, parabolic planes shot through with parallel nylon threading. The taut, delicate webbing of strings crisscrossed as the sculpture was moved. In some pieces he incorporated silver, gold, and aluminum wire; when set against a dark ground, they appeared ethereal. Gabo brought with him to Britain dozens of sketches and models for unrealised projects including Monument for an Airport (1932). This piece after much development formed the basis of the design of Torsion (1970-75) a fountain commissioned for St. Thomas Hospital
, London. Other large scale projects Gabo realised include sculptures for the Baltimore Museum of Art and a De Bijenkorf Department Store in Rotterdam.在1946年遷往美國 ,並在953年定居Middlebury, Connecticut;在1952年成為美國公民。He completed his Construction Suspended in Space for the Baltimore Museum of Art in 1951.1953-4聘為哈佛大學建築研究所教授。In 1961 Gabo made a return trip to Moscow and retrieved a number of early works. 在之後的期間,他在美國、歐洲實踐了幾件大型雕塑的委任,包括1955-7(荷蘭)鹿特丹港市為Bijenkorf Department store的81呎構成雕塑。 This work is composed largely of a bronze-coated steel mesh that adheres to a skeletal frame resembling an upright seedpod. About the same time, he executed a wall re 粉刺或青春痘lief for the U.S. Rubber Company in Rockefeller Center, New York City, and another one for the Baltimore, Maryland, museum. Also during the 1950s, Gabo took up wood engraving to explore the same concepts as his sculpture. He used this technique in his work through the mid-1970s. He was given an Honorary Knighthood (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 1972, and an honorary Doctorate by the Royal College of Art
. The Tate Gallery held a retrospective of his work in 1976 and Gabo gifted a large collection of his work and papers to the gallery.He received many honors including the American Art Institute%26#39;s Logan Medal (1954), the Brandeis Award (1960), and a Guggenheim Fellowship. A retrospective exhibition of his work toured Europe in 1965-66.
Gabo%26#39;s attempt to explore the fourth dimension, kinetic effects, as put forth in his Manifesto, was not literally followed up in most of his works. The Monument for the Institute of Physics and Mathematics (1925) contains rotating elements, and the Vertical Construction No. 2 (1964-64) is rotated by a motor, but otherwise motion is generally restricted to hanging sculptures that rotate freely. Gabo married Miriam Israels in 1936 and the couple had one daughter, Nina Serafima, born 1939. Naum Gabo died at the age of 87 in 1977死於美國康乃迪克州華特貝里(Waterbury)。
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